The Afghanistan Monitor is a regular publication from Friedrich-EbertStiftung (FES) Pakistan that covers the political, economic and humanitarian situation since the Taliban takeover. Each issue features experts’ analysis of the country’s latest developments. The second issue summarizes the events from October to January 2023. Since the Taliban’s assumption of power in August 2021 as Afghanistan’s de facto authorities, their performance has been extensively debated by observers, critics, and politicians. 1 Despite some positive developments in terms of security and pragmatism with regards to economic activity, there remain major concerns regarding political inclusion, social cohesion, and the development of political structures. Moreover, their oppressive policies towards women remains a central issue, reminding the world of the Taliban of two decades ago. Furthermore, challenges posed and exacerbated by the pressures of transnational terrorist groups continue to challenge the future of the country.