The Afghanistan Monitor is a regular publication from Friedrich-Ebert- Stiftung (FES) Pakistan that covers the political, economic, security, and humanitarian situation in Afghanistan since the Taliban takeover. Each issue features experts’ analysis of the country’s latest development. The fourth issue, while summarizing the two years of the Taliban’s rule, will also focus on events since April 2023. August 15, 2023, marked two years since the Taliban regime assumed power. Initially, there was a lack of clarity regarding the Taliban's policies as well as significant concerns about the future of Afghanistan, particularly the group’s approach towards domestic issues such as governance, political freedom, human and women's rights, counterterrorism measures, as well as matters pertaining to regional peace and stability. However, the past two years have provided significant insights into the Taliban's governing approach, which can be characterized as a blend of authoritarian policies and selective pragmatism.